Working together to strengthen and support noxious weed management efforts in Montana.

Priority 2B Weed

Weed of the Week – Sulfur Cinquefoil

Wednesday, October 6th, 2010

 

Sulfur cinquefoil was introduced into North America in the 1900’s.  It began by populating eastern Canada and the Great Lakes region in the U.S.  In 1947, sulfur cinquefoil was discovered in Ravalli County, this was the first sighting in Montana.  Since the 1980’s, the sulfur cinquefoil population has exploded across the west.  This weed has been reported in 33 counties in Montana and occupies approximately 278,000 acres with in the state.

Concerns This weed is adapted to a variety of environmental conditions, it can grow in grasslands, shrubby areas, open forests, roadsides, ditches, and logged areas.  It often grows in association with spotted knapweed.

Sulfur cinquefoil is not very palatable to grazing animals.  Therefore, in grasslands where this weed occurs grazing will further reduce native grass production.  A sulfur cinquefoil plant has the ability to produce up to 1,650 seeds per year.  This plant can completely take over a site, creating a monoculture of sulfur cinquefoil.

Identification Sulfur cinquefoil is most recognizable for its yellowish green palamate compound leaves. The 5-7 leaflets are serrated and look similar to marijuana leaves or native strawberries. The plant is 12-28 inches tall and the stem is covered in sparse course, stiff hairs.  The flowers of this plant have five, pale yellow petals.

Sulfur cinquefoil is a long-lived perennial that has been documented to live up to 30 years.  Sulfur cinquefoil can be confused with the native northwest cinquefoil.  They can typically be differentiated among by the backside of their leaves.  The native cinquefoil has a silvery-green back side, where the non-native is green.  Also, the hair on the stem of the native lays flat against the stem and the non-native has hair that is stiff and perpendicular to the stem.

What can you do? As with any weed management there is no one solution, sulfur cinquefoil is best managed by integrating multiple controls.  An effective mechanical method for removing sulfur cinquefoil is hand digging or chopping the root crown out of the ground.  Cultivation on crop grounds is also an effective method of removal.  There have been a variety of herbicides that have proven to be very effective on controlling sulfur cinquefoil infestations.  It is important to revegetate once the sulfur cinquefoil has been removed.  There has not been any effective form of bio-control discovered yet because it is closely related to some of our native plants.  Getting infestations of sulfur cinquefoil under control takes time and diligence on the part of the landowner.  Please call your local weed district, with any questions regarding infestations on your property.

Visit the MWCA Weed ID pages for additional information and pictures of sulfur cinquefoil.

This series of articles was developed by Ravalli County.  If you would like to use these articles please contact Ravalli County Weed District Weed Coordinator at (406) 777-5842.


Weed of the Week – Field Bindweed

Thursday, September 23rd, 2010

 

Field bindweed was introduced from Eurasia in the 1800’s.  It is unclear whether this weed was brought here as an ornamental or by accident.  Other common names that field bindweed is known as are: perennial morning glory, creeping jenny, bellbine, sheepbine, and corn-bind.

Concerns This perennial weed will grow into a dense tangled infestation.  Field bindweed will inhabit pastures and cultivated fields as well as other disturbed areas.  The creeping nature of bindweed forces out native grasses and forbs creating pure fields of field bindweed.  Field bindweed is very difficult to control due to its vigorous root system and its ability to lay dormant for up to 60 years.  The roots of the field bindweed can extend up to 15 feet deep.

Identification Field bindweed is part of the morning glory family and shares the family’s vine characteristic.  The stems of this weed will grow between 1-4 feet long, creeping horizontally along the ground or climbing fences and other structures.  The leaves are shaped like arrowheads, are dark green, and grow alternately along the stem.  The most notable feature of this weed are the flowers.  They are 1 inch in diameter and are bell-shaped. There are two bracts located on the stem below each white to pinkish flower.  Four small seeds are produced by each flower and are located in the round fruit.

What can you do? The control of field bindweed requires a persistent effort.  The prevention of new infestations is the cheapest and easiest method for control.  Cultivation can be effective if repeated throughout the growing season especially on new infestations.  Competitive planting with crops such as alfalfa, cereal grains, and corn have been shown to reduce bindweed growth.  Shrubs and trees with vegetation planted below them have also shown to reduce bindweed growth.  Landscaping with plastics and fabric can be used in areas where it is conducive.  This method excludes light to the plant and may take three years to kill the bindweed plant.  There are herbicides that are effective on bindweed.  For herbicide recommendations or any weed oriented questions call your local weed district.

Visit the MWCA Weed ID pages for additional information and pictures of field bindweed.

This series of articles was developed by Ravalli County.  If you would like to use these articles please contact Ravalli County Weed District Weed Coordinator at (406) 777-5842.


Weed of the Week – Dalmatian Toadflax

Thursday, September 16th, 2010

 

Dalmatian toadflax was introduced into the west coast of the United States in the late 1800’s.  It was brought here from the Mediterranean region as an ornamental plant.  It has escaped captivity and now infests much of the northwestern United States.  Unfortunately, this weed is still sold in greenhouses as Wild Snapdragon, Butter and Eggs, or Jacob’s Ladder.  Dalmatian toadflax was first discovered in south-central Montana in the 1940’s.  This weed has been reported in 43 counties throughout the state.

Concerns Dalmatian toadflax is a great concern because it will displace native vegetation and consequently displace animals associated with native vegetation.  This weed is extremely successful at displacing native vegetation because it spreads both rhizomatously (roots that run parallel to the ground surface) and by seed.  One plant can produce 500,000 seed per year.  The loss of native vegetation will also increase soil erosion, sediment yield, and surface runoff due to loss of bunch grasses and sod-forming grasses.

Cattle ranchers are seeing lower carrying capacity on infested sites.  Land that has Dalmatian toadflax can have lower appraisal value because of the cost of controlling it and the negative impact the weed has on the land.

Identification Dalmatian toadflax is very similar in appearance to yellow toadflax.  The main difference between Dalmatian and yellow toadflax are the leaves.  The leaves of Dalmatian toadflax are heart shaped with smooth edges and are arranged alternately on the stem.  The leaves and stem are a whitish to bluish in color.  The flowers are very similar to yellow toadflax, they are bright yellow with an orange throat and look like a snapdragon flower.  Another distinction between yellow toadflax and Dalmatian toadflax is that the Dalmatian can grow up to 3 feet tall.

What can you do? The best strategy for managing toadflax infestations is an integrated approach that focuses on preventing seed formation and vegetative spread.  Having multiple approaches to toadflax is crucial because of the wide range of conditions it inhabits and due to its genetic variability.  Mechanical methods such as hand pulling and digging are effective in newly established, small patches.  Hand pulling toadflax works when the weed is young and the conditions are moist.  Mowing will not help reduce toadflax populations because it does not remove the root system.  Sheep will graze toadflax when it is in bloom but this is not enough to control an infestation.  There are a number of biocontrols being studied; one in particular has shown promising results.  This insect is mecinus janthinus and it is a stem boring weevil that causes wilt and suppressed flower production.  Herbicides are an effective method for control of toadflax.  Revegetation is a very important tool in managing toadflax.  Integrating some or all of the above-mentioned tools into a long-term management strategy will help control Dalmatian toadflax infestations.  If you have any questions about noxious weeds call the weed district.

Visit the MWCA Weed ID pages for additional information and pictures of dalmatian toadflax.

This series of articles was developed by Ravalli County.  If you would like to use these articles please contact Ravalli County Weed District Weed Coordinator at (406) 777-5842.


Weed of the Week – Yellow Toadflax

Thursday, September 2nd, 2010

 

Introduction

Yellow toadflax also known as butter-and-eggs or common toadflax was introduced into North America as an ornamental in the mid 1800’s.  Yellow toadflax has a long history of medicinal uses in Eurasia.  The Mennonites cultivated toadflax for dying homespun garments.  Yellow toadflax has spread throughout North America and is found mostly in the northeast and Pacific Coast region.  In 1973, Alberta, Canada designated yellow toadflax to be “the most troublesome perennial broad-leaved weed in Alberta”.

Concerns

Yellow toadflax is very difficult to remove once the plant has been established because of its ability to adapt to a variety of sites.  It also has the ability to reproduce both by seeds and by vegetative roots.  This weed will displace desirable grasses and vegetation, which can lead to decreased carrying capacity on rangelands.  Yellow toadflax is also said to be mildly poisonous to livestock, though it is generally not palatable to livestock.  This tall bunch like weed will shade out vegetation from growing below it and therefore increasing topsoil’s exposure to erosion.

Identification

Yellow toadflax can grow from 8-24 inches tall.  The leaves of this weed are gray-green in color and are long and narrow.  They are also arranged alternately on the stem.  Though the leaves of the toadflax looks like leafy spurge, toadflax does not produce a milky sap.  The flowers of a yellow toadflax plant resemble those of a snapdragon with flowers that are 1-1¼ inches long and mostly yellow petals that have an orange throat and a downward pointing spur.  They are densely clustered at the top of the stem.  Yellow toadflax will bloom between June and July.  Each plant can produce up to 8,700 seeds.

What can you do?

The seedlings of Yellow toadflax are poor competitors for soil moisture.  It is important to keep a healthy community of grasses and other desirable species to prevent seedlings from establishing.  Hand-pulling and digging are useful tools on young plants and small infestation but these methods must be repeated on a long-term scale (10-15 years) to achieve complete control.  There are herbicides that have been proven to be useful in combination with mechanical methods and a proper grazing regime.  For herbicide recommendations or any other weed questions contact your local county weed district.

Visit the MWCA Weed ID pages for additional information and pictures of yellow toadflax.

This series of articles was developed by Ravalli County.  If you would like to use these articles please contact Ravalli County Weed District Weed Coordinator at (406) 777-5842.


Weed of the Week – Spotted Knapweed

Thursday, August 26th, 2010

 

Notice the dark spots on the bracts under the blossom, this is where the weed gets its name Spotted Knapweed.

Notice the dark spots on the bracts under the blossom, this is where the weed gets its name Spotted Knapweed.

Introduction Spotted knapweed is the number one problem on rangelands in western Montana.  Spotted knapweed is dramatically interfering with the Montana’s unique ecosystems.  It was accidentally introduced to the United States through contaminated alfalfa and contaminated soil used as ship ballast.

The first report of this weed in Ravalli County was 1921.  Knapweed has infested 2-5 million acres in Montana, with potential to spread to the 34 million susceptible acres in the state.  Spotted knapweed has been recorded in every county in Montana.

Concerns Knapweed has changed the face of our lands in western Montana.  Ranchers, wildlife enthusiast, hunters, foresters, hikers, and fisherman are impacted by the dramatic affect that knapweed is having on our ecosystem.  Spotted knapweed is particularly hard to manage due to its ability to occupy a variety of sites and habitats.  This weed will aggressively out-compete native vegetation.

Watersheds throughout the state are reaping the negative effects of the soil erosion that knapweed causes.  The soil erosion caused by spotted knapweed is degrading fisheries and water quality.  Spotted knapweed is impacting Montana’s economy in a serious way. The negative effect knapweed has on Montana’s economy is an estimated $42 million annually.

Identification Spotted knapweed is a pinkish-purple flower and the plant grows 1-3 feet tall.  The bracts underneath the flowers have dark spotted tips that are also fringed.  Spotted knapweed blooms from mid to late July and through September.  Each individual flower will bloom for 2-6 days.  The flowers will reopen after 20 days to disperse seeds.  One knapweed plant can produce up to 1000 seeds and remain viable in the soil for 8 years. You will begin to see spotted knapweed rosettes in early April.  Knapweed can grow to nearly 4 feet tall on moist sites.

What can you do? For pastures and rangelands that have not been infested, prevention is key.  Avoid transporting seeds from infested sites.  Seeds can attach themselves to vehicles, clothes, and animals.  Use only certified weed-seed free seed and hay in non-infested areas.  For infested areas integrated weed management methods need to be employed.  Small infestations can be controlled through timed hand pulling, which should take place when the soil is moist and prior to the plant going to seed.  Pulled plants should be bagged and disposed of or burned.

Plowing an infested area is feasible, if plowed down to 7 inches below soil surface and if the area is reseeded with desirable vegetation.  Plowing may cause dormant knapweed seeds in the soil to germinate.  This method is best if used with herbicide treatment or grazing.  Sheep, goats, and cattle will graze spotted knapweed at certain times.  Grazing on knapweed should be timed for when the grasses have gone dormant.  Sheep grazing in combination with herbicide use can be fairly effective.  There are multiple insects that exist in Montana as a mean of controlling knapweed.  The success of knapweed eradication requires a long-term commitment.

Visit the MWCA Weed ID pages for additional information and pictures of spotted knapweed.

This series of articles was developed by Ravalli County.  If you would like to use these articles please contact Ravalli County Weed District Weed Coordinator at (406) 777-5842.


Weed of the Week – Common Tansy

Thursday, August 19th, 2010

 

Common Tansy, photo credit: Jerry R. Oldenettel

Common Tansy, photo credit: Jerry R. Oldenettel

Common Tansy is also known as golden buttons and garden tansy.  Common tansy was introduced from Europe into colonial North America in the 1600’s as an ornamental plant and for medicinal uses.  Ironically, common tansy contains alkaloids that are toxic to humans and livestock if consumed in large quantities.  Common Tansy was first discovered in Silver Bow County in 1936.  Common tansy is a big problem in most counties on the roadsides, ditches, and waste areas.

Concerns Common tansy is unpalatable to livestock and mildly poisonous.  The presence of this weed reduces species diversity, wildlife habitat, and livestock forage.  It has a tendency to grow near water, which allows the plant to spread easily and makes control difficult.  The root system on common tansy allows the plant to spread laterally and by broken pieces of roots.

Identification Common tansy is a perennial forb that can reproduce by rootstalk or seed.  One of the most notable features of tansy is the potent smell cause by crushing the leaves.  The flowers on common tansy are yellow-orange button-like flower heads.  Flowers of the common tansy are numerous; there can be 20-100 flowers in flat-topped, dense clusters.  The leaves on the common tansy are deeply divided into leaflets with toothed margins, almost fern-like. The leaves are alternately arranged and are uniform in size.  This plant will grow between 1-6 feet tall and the stem is often a purplish-red color.

What can you do? Due to the extensive root system of common tansy an integrated management approach is necessary.  Preventing the spread of this weed into new areas is one of the easiest management techniques.  Mowing and hand-pulling has marginal results due to the root system of tansy and they are best used in combination with other controls.  Mowing and pulling will help prevent seed production.  Maintaining healthy desirable vegetation will aid in controlling common tansy.  Grazing in infested areas should be monitored closely to maintain desired species.  There are a couple of effective chemicals for common tansy.  For recommendations on those, call the weed district,

Visit the MWCA Weed ID pages for additional information and pictures of common tansy.

This series of articles was developed by Ravalli County.  If you would like to use these articles please contact Ravalli County Weed District Weed Coordinator at (406) 777-5842.


Weed of the Week – Saltcedar

Thursday, July 29th, 2010

 

Introduction

Saltcedar is native to Eurasia but was introduced to North American in the early 1800’s as an ornamental and also for erosion control.  It was quick to escape cultivation and has since been spreading rapidly.  This attractive shrub has characteristics similar to an evergreen but looses its leaves in the colder months and is therefore considered deciduous.  Saltcedars readily establish along waterways, streams, canals, banks, drainage areas, and anywhere that the soils are exposed to an extended period of moisture.

Saltcedar has become well established throughout the southwestern United States and Mexico.  There are also extensive infestations in many of the northern states and small but well-established stands in Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, and North Dakota.  In most western Montana counties, these shrubs are found as ornamental in landscaped yards.

Concerns

This long-lived shrub (50-100 years) can spread by both vegetative re-growth and seeds.  Each flowering shrub produces around 600,000 seeds.  Not only are they long lived and have great reproductive capabilities, but they also grow extremely rapidly.  Most of these shrubs can flower the same year they germinate.  They exclude native vegetation by exuding salts above and below ground.  This creates a saline crust, which inhibits other plants from growing in close proximity.  The other main concern with Saltcedar is its consumption of large quantities of water.  One shrub can consume up to 250 gallons of water in 1 day.  This can result in lowering the ground water and drying up springs and marshes, which in turn lessens the amount of water available in riparian areas.  Saltcedar’s dense roots also slow down river flow, which increases deposition of sediments along the river bank.  This widens the riparian zones causing a severe reduction in streamflow or rechanneling, which creates more habitat for Saltcedar to colonize.

Identification

This shrub can reach heights of up to 25 feet and has dense branches that often make it many feet wide.  The narrow leaves of a Saltcedar resemble those of a juniper but they fall off in the colder months unlike junipers.  This shrub is also known as a smoke tree because of it beautiful plumes of deep pink to white flowers that crowd the tips of the branches.  The bark of a Saltcedar is reddish-brown, while the wood is soft and white.  The smooth bark becomes furrowed with age.

What can you do?

Saltcedar is very difficult to control.  A combination of methods is the most effective means of control.  Cutting the stump and immediately applying herbicide has proved to be successful.  The herbicide has to be applied within 1 minute of cutting the shrub or it will not penetrate into the stump.  If you have a Saltcedar or you know where one is please contact your local weed district.  We will be happy to help in the proper control of these highly invasive shrubs.

Visit the MWCA Weed ID pages for additional information and pictures of saltcedar.

This series of articles was developed by Ravalli County.  If you would like to use these articles please contact Ravalli County Weed District Weed Coordinator at (406) 777-5842.


Weed of the Week – Houndstongue

Thursday, July 22nd, 2010

 

Introduction

Houndstongue was introduced into the U.S. in the 1900’s from Eurasia as a cereal contaminant.  It is also known as sheep’s lice, dog’s bur, beggar’s lice, woolmat, and glovewort.  The seed of houndstongue has been said to be the inspiration for Velcro.

Concerns

In Montana, houndstongue infests an estimated 36,000 acres.  Where it is established it will displaces native vegetation and cause problems on pasturelands. The taproot of houndstongue grows deep into the soil and is very efficient at capturing soil nutrients and water reducing what is available for beneficial native grasses and forbs.

It has an uncanny ability to disperse its seeds. The seeds of houndstongue are covered with Velcro-like barbs that attach to clothing, hair, fur, and feathers.  They can be transported long distances into new areas by animals, people, vehicles, etc.  Each plant can produce up to 2000 seeds that can remain viable on the parent plant for 2-3 years.

Houndstongue is not generally palatable to grazing animals but on occasion when they are in a confined area with nothing else to eat they will graze on it.  This can be a problem because houndtongue contains poisonous chemicals that in high doses can kill an animal.  The chemical found in houndstongue is pyrroli-zidine alkaloids, which will cause liver damage in horses and cattle but not in sheep.

Identification

Houndstongue is a member of the Boraginaceae (Borage) family.  It is a biennial, meaning that its lifecycle is completed in two years.  The first year a rosette will emerge and the second year flowering stocks will grow up to 4 feet tall.  The rosette and flowering stock leaves are oblong and are covered in soft white hairs.  The deep vienation on the leaves is said to resemble a hound’s tongue, which lead to its common name.  The flowers range from red to a deep burgundy.  Each flower produces a seed cluster containing 3-4 teardrop-shaped fruits or nutlets.  It begins flowering in mid-June.

What can you do?

The most important management tool for houndstoungue is prevention. It is important to not let this weed spread and establish in new areas. You can help stop the spread of this weed by: containing infestations, limiting weed seed dispersal, identifying and eradicating new infestations, minimizing soil disturbance, planting competitive grasses, and properly grazing infested areas.

Hand-pulling this weed is beneficial, as long as at least 2 inches of the root crown is removed.  After removing houndstongue bag or burn the weed in order not to spread the seeds. An effective biological control has not yet been release in Montana. There are also herbicides that work well on houndstongue.  For more information on houndstongue or any other weed, call your local county weed district.

Visit the MWCA Weed ID pages for additional information and pictures of Houndstongue.

This series of articles was developed by Ravalli County.  If you would like to use these articles please contact Ravalli County Weed District Weed Coordinator at (406) 777-5842.


Weed of the Week – Canada Thistle

Monday, July 19th, 2010

 

Introduction

Canada thistle is native to Europe and northern Asia and was brought to the United States in the early 1600’s as a contaminant in grain.  By the 1950’s, Canada thistle was declared a noxious weed in 43 states. Canada thistle was partially responsible for the existence of noxious weed laws.  In the 1900’s, the Canada thistle law was enacted.  It gave a person the right to trespass onto someone else’s property in the name of Canada thistle eradication.

Concerns

Canada thistle is an aggressive competitor.  This weed has a long creeping root system that will steal precious nutrients and water from native vegetation.  The height of this weed also shades the ground below making it very difficult for grasses and forbs to grow.  Canada thistle will form colonies in areas that have been recently disturbed, abandoned fields, ditches, and prairies.

The presence of this weed will change the plant structure of communities and decrease biodiversity.  Canada thistle can be a huge problem on agricultural land due to the fact that it is an alternate host for some insects and pathogens that are known to attack certain crops.  It is also difficult and expensive to control.

Identification

This thistle is unique because it is a perennial, whereas most thistles are biennial, this also makes it harder to control.  Canada thistle can grow from 1 to 4 feet tall.  The leaves of this thistle are attached alternately along the stem; they are lance-shaped, lobed and spine-tipped.  The leaves get gradually smaller as they progress up the stem.  The stem is branched and sometimes hairy, but it lacks spines.

The flowers of the Canada thistle are usually purple and sometimes white.  They are ½ to ¾ inch in diameter and grow in clusters at the end of stems.  Each plant can produce up to 5,300 seeds that are easily distributed by the wind due to the tufts of hair attached to them.  The seeds remain viable in the soil for up to 20 years.

What can you do?

Stop small infestations before they take over.  Burning and mowing are somewhat effective because they allow native and desirable plant to compete with this weed.  These two techniques must be repeated for many years to achieve real success because of the longevity of the seeds in the soil and the weeds ability to sprout from broken roots.  Hand pulling and cultivation generally are ineffective and time consuming.  These two methods will not remove all of the roots and plant will re-sprout from the remaining roots.  There are herbicides that are effective.  If you have any further questions regarding this weed or other weeds on your property call your local weed district.

Visit the MWCA Weed ID pages for additional information and pictures of Canada Thistle.

This series of articles was developed by Ravalli County.  If you would like to use these articles please contact Ravalli County Weed District Weed Coordinator at (406) 777-5842.


Weed of the Week Series – Leafy Spurge

Thursday, July 8th, 2010

 

Introduction

Leafy Spurge was introduced as an ornamental into the United States in the 1800’s.  Presently, leafy spurge covers over 3 million acres in 29 states.  It is having major economic and ecological impacts on many western states.  These impacts are related to its affect on grazing, wildlife habitat, wildlife related recreation, native plant populations, and ecosystem biodiversity.

Concerns

Leafy spurge is extremely aggressive and can out-compete native vegetation creating monocultures.  The milky sap emitted from the stem of leafy spurge is poisonous to humans, horses, and cattle.  There are cases where this sap has killed livestock and resulted in blindness in humans.  Like livestock, wildlife also avoids grazing spruge.  The abundance of leafy spurge in areas historically grazed by wildlife has caused them to migrate into areas they have not before inhabited.

Leafy spurge is having an enormous economic impact on the western states.  Montana, North and South Dakota, and Wyoming together spend approximately $144 million per year on leafy spurge control.  Land that has been invaded with leafy spurge has a decreased market value because of the plants detrimental ecological effects, as well as, the costs associated with control.

Identification

Leafy spurge has small, inconspicuous green flowers that are surrounded by a pair of yellow-green heart shaped leaves.  These leaves are often mistaken for the flower itself. This plant can grow up to 3 feet tall and when the stem is broken milky white sap seeps from it.  The leaves that attach to the stem also seep white sap when damaged.  These leaves are long and arranged alternately along the stem.  The taproot of leafy spurge can be up to 30 feet deep.  The seed head on this plant explodes when it is dry, sending the seed up to 15 feet from the mother plant.

What can you do?

Leafy spurge is an aggressive competitor and it takes aggressive management to gain control of infestations.  The most successful means of control of leafy spurge have been an intergraded weed management plan that utilizes a combination of methods.  There are five methods of controlling leafy spurge, they include:  prevention, hand-pulling, biological, revegetation, grazing, and chemical.  Prevent infestations by using weed and weed seed free hay, mulch, and gravel.  It is also important to prevent the transportation of seeds and root particles on vehicles or clothing.  Eradicate small outbreaks as soon as possible.  Hand pulling spurge is not the most efficient method, but it can be effective on plants that are in their first year of growth.  There are biological controls that have been found to be effective in Montana.  They are the flea beetles (Apthona) and root/stem boring beetles (Oberea erythrocephala).  Sheep and goat grazing can also be a useful tool when timed correctly and supervised by a knowledgeable herder.  Revegetation with competitive plants is always important with any weed control program.  All leafy spurge outbreaks take patience and attentiveness to overcome.  Have any questions?  Call your local county weed district.

Visit the MWCA Weed ID pages for additional information and pictures of leafy spurge.

This series of articles was developed by Ravalli County.  If you would like to use these articles please contact Ravalli County Weed District Weed Coordinator at (406) 777-5842.